Posts Tagged ‘TEGDMA’

Effect of Varying Filler Content in BisGMA:TEGDMA Composites

Friday, September 10th, 2010
Share This Post!

Contraction stress related to composite inorganic content

F. Gonçalvesa, Y. Kawanob, R.R. Bragaa

Dental Materials Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 704-709 (July 2010).

Objectives: The role of inorganic content on physical properties of resin composites is well known. However, its influence on polymerization stress development has not been established. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of inorganic fraction on polymerization stress and its determinants, namely, volumetric shrinkage, elastic modulus and degree of conversion.

Methods: Eight experimental composites containing 1:1 BisGMA (bisphenylglycidyl dimethacrylate):TEGDMA (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (in mol) and barium glass at increasing concentrations from 25 to 60vol.% (5% increments) were tested. Stress was determined in a universal test machine using acrylic as bonding substrate. Nominal polymerization stress was obtained diving the maximum load by the cross-surface area. Shrinkage was measured using a water picnometer. Elastic modulus was obtained by three-point flexural test. Degree of conversion was determined by FT-Raman spectroscopy.

Results: Polymerization stress and shrinkage showed inverse relationships with filler content (R2=0.965 and R2=0.966, respectively). Elastic modulus presented a direct correlation with inorganic content (R2=0.984). Degree of conversion did not vary significantly. Polymerization stress showed a strong direct correlation with shrinkage (R2=0.982) and inverse with elastic modulus (R2=0.966).

Significance: High inorganic contents were associated with low polymerization stress values, which can be explained by the reduced volumetric shrinkage presented by heavily filled composites.

Link:  http://www.demajournal.com/article/PIIS0109564110000801/fulltext


Share This Post!

Alternative Photoinitiator Assists in Camphorquinone Cure

Tuesday, July 27th, 2010
Share This Post!

Degree of conversion and color stability of the light curing resin with new photoinitiator systems

Dong-Hoon Shin, H. Ralph Rawls

Dental Materials, August 2009 (Vol. 25, Issue 8, Pages 1030-1038)

Objectives: This study investigated p-octyloxy-phenyl-phenyl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate (OPPI) as a photoinitiator, in combination with camphorquinone/amine photoinitiation systems, for use with di(meth)acrylate-based composite resins. The investigation determined if the inclusion of OPPI improved degree and rate of conversion, initial color and color stability of a representative composite resin dental material.

Methods: Camphorquinone (CQ) and OPPI were combined in various proportions with the amine co-initiator 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and used at two levels in which CQ+OPPI+DMAEMA=1wt.% or 3wt.% to photoinitiate a BisGMA/BisEMA/TEGDMA (37.5:37.5:25wt.%) monomer blend. Monomer mixture (GTE) was made by mixing 37.5wt.% BISGMA (lot # 568-21-07, ESSTECH, Essington, PA), 37.5wt.% BISEMA (lot # 474-32-02, ESSTECH), and 25wt.% TEGDMA (lot # 597-23-02, ESSTECH). A total of eight groups (four groups for each level of total photoinitiator, 1% and 3%) were tested according to the following proportion of components in the photoinitiator system: Each monomer was polymerized using a quartz-halogen curing unit (Demetron 400, Demetron Research Corp., Danbury, CT) with an intensity of 400mW/cm2 for 5s, 20s, 40s, 60s, 300s and their conversion levels (DC) were determined at each exposure time using a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). To examine color stability, experimental composite resins were made by mixing 3.2% silanated barium glass (78wt.%, average filler size; 1μm) with each monomer system, except both CQ only group and 1% CO group, which were found to cure insufficiently to be able to prepare useful specimens. Disk-shaped samples (10mm in diameter and 1.5mm in thickness) were made and stored under the conditions of dry or saline solution at room temperature (25°C) or 60°C water bath. Each CIELAB scale was determined with a colorimeter (CHROMA METER CR-400) at the time of baseline (day after curing), 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks later.

Results: The high level (3%) photoinitiated groups exhibited greater DC than the low level (1%) groups. In the 3% group, the COA group showed the fastest and the highest DC, while in the 1% group the CA and COA groups showed the greatest DC. In the color stability test, both CA groups were darker and more yellow than the CO and COA groups. Color was more stable in composite resins containing OPPI than those containing only the CQ and amine components. The least color change (greatest color stability) was found using 25°C saline solution aging, and the most change (least color stability) occurred using 60°C dry air aging.

Significance: This study suggests that OPPI can be used to replace the amine in a given CQ/amine photoinitiator system to accelerate cure rate, increase conversion, reduce initial color and increase color stability.

Link: http://www.demajournal.com/article/S0109-5641%2809%2900139-0/abstract


Share This Post!

UDMA – TEGDMA Viable Resin System for Chlorhexidine Release

Thursday, June 17th, 2010
Share This Post!

Controlled Release of Chlorhexidine from UDMA-TEGDMA Resin

K.J. Anusavice, N.-Z. Zhang and C. Shen

J DENT RES 2006; 85; 950

ABSTRACT
Chlorhexidine salts are available in various formulations for dental applications. This study tested the hypothesis that the release of chlorhexidine from a urethane dimethacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate resin system can be effectively controlled by the chlorhexidine diacetate content and pH. The filler concentrations were 9.1, 23.1, or 33.3 wt%, and the filled resins were exposed to pH 4 and pH 6 acetate buffers. The results showed that Fickian diffusion was the dominant release mechanism. The rates of release were significantly higher in pH 4 buffer, which was attributed to the increase of chlorhexidine diacetate solubility at lower pH. The higher level of filler loading reduced the degree of polymerization, leading to a greater loss of organic components and higher chlorhexidine release rates.

Link:  http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/85/10/950


Share This Post!

Bisphenol A Content

Wednesday, June 2nd, 2010
Share This Post!

BisGMA, bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate is a common resin that carries trace amounts of BPA.  Bisphenol A (BPA) carries with it various risks recognized by the National Toxicology Program.

It is possible that high doses of bisphenol A during pregnancy and/or lactation can reduce survival, birth weight, and growth of offspring early in life.  BPA has also been shown to have estrogenic effects. *

According to internal analysis, Esstech’s bisGMA, Product Code X-950-0000, has one of the lowest BPA concentrations in the industry.

BPA Chart

EASE OF FORMULATION

To simplify formulations, X-950-0000 is available in pre-mixed solutions with Triethyleneglycol Dimethacrylate (TEGDMA).

BPA-FREE ALTERNATIVES

Esstech is constantly striving to provide customers with the most up-to-date and novel materials.  The f0llowing are resin “alternatives” that do not contain BPA.

X-850-0000, Urethane Dimethacrylate

  • Cures to create a hard glassy surface
  • Low color values
  • Excellent compatibility with light cure systems

X-726-0000, Extended UDMA

  • Increased flexibility
  • Enhanced fracture toughness

Esstech is constantly striving to provide customers with the most up-to-date and novel materials.  Contact us if you would like to discuss a certain material or to hear what we have in development.

* NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Bisphenol A.  National Toxicology Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  NIH Publication No. 08-5994, September 2008.


Share This Post!

BisGMA:TEGDMA:UDMA Composites Present Optimal Conversion and Mechanical Properties.

Friday, May 21st, 2010
Share This Post!

Bis-GMA  co-polymerizations: Influence on conversion, flexural properties, fracture toughness and susceptibility to ethanol degradation of experimental composites

Carmem S. Pfeifer, Laura R. Silva, Yoshio Kawano, Roberto R. Braga

Dental Materials Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 1136-1141 (September 2009)

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of monomer content on fracture toughness (KIc) before and after ethanol solution storage, flexural properties and degree of conversion (DC) of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) co-polymers.

Methods

Five formulations were tested, containing Bis-GMA (B) combined with TEGDMA (T), UDMA (U) or Bis-EMA (E), as follows (in mol%): 30B:70T; 30B:35T:35U; 30B:70U; 30B:35T:35E; 30B:70E. Bimodal filler was introduced at 80wt%. Single-edge notched beams for fracture toughness (FT, 25mm×5mm×2.5mm, a/w=0.5, n=20) and 10mm×2mm×1mm beams for flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM) determination (10mm×2mm×1mm, n=10) were built and then stored in distilled water for 24h at 37°C. All FS/FM beams and half of the FT specimens were immediately submitted to three-point bending test. The remaining FT specimens were stored in a 75%ethanol/25%water (v/v) solution for 3 months prior to testing. DC was determined with FT-Raman spectroscopy in fragments of both FT and FS/FM specimens at 24h. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA/Tukey test (α=5%).

Results

The 30B:70T composite presented the highest KIc value (in MPam1/2) at 24h (1.3±0.4), statistically similar to 30B:35T:35U and 30B:70U, while 30B:70E presented the lowest value (0.5±0.1). After ethanol storage, reductions in KIc ranged from 33 to 72%. The 30B:70E material presented the lowest reduction in FT and 30B:70U, the highest. DC was similar among groups (69–73%), except for 30B:70U (52±4%, p<0.001). 30B:70U and 30B:35T:35U presented the highest FS (125±21 and 122±14MPa, respectively), statistically different from 30B:70T or 30B:70E (92±20 and 94±16MPa, respectively). Composites containing UDMA or Bis-EMA associated with Bis-GMA presented similar FM, statistically lower than 30B:35T:35U.

Significance

Composites formulated with Bis-GMA:TEGDMA:UDMA presented the best compromise between conversion and mechanical properties.

This version was accepted March 23, 2009.

Link, http://www.demajournal.com/article/S0109-5641%2809%2900162-6/abstract


Share This Post!

Optimizing Degree of Conversion, Strength, Young’s Modulus and Hardness of Bis-EMA, Bis-GMA and TEGDMA Formulations

Tuesday, April 20th, 2010
Share This Post!

Preparation and Evaluation of Dental Resin Luting Agents with Increasing Content of Bisphenol-A Ethoxylated Dimethacrylate

Rafael R. Moraes, Mário A.C. Sinhoreti, Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho, Fabrício A. Ogliari, Evandro Piva, and Cesar L. Petzhold

Journal of Biomaterials Applications, Jan 2010; vol. 24: pp. 453 – 473.

Abstract: Resin luting agents in which bisphenol-A glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and/or triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) are replaced with increasing amounts of bisphenol-A ethoxylated dimethacrylate are prepared. Degree of conversion (DC), diametral tensile strength (DTS), Young’s modulus (YM), Knoop hardness (KHN), film thickness (FT), water sorption (Wsp ), and solubility are evaluated. Regression analyses investigate the substitution of each monomer. The most appreciable differences are detected when TEGDMA is replaced: decreased DC, DTS, and Wsp, and increased YM, KHN, and FT. For substitution of Bis-GMA, the only significant differences are reduced Wsp and increased YM. An ideal formulation of resin cement would make use of the three monomers.

…Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, and/or Bis-EMA (Esstech Inc., Essington, PA, USA) were tested…photo-curable, 0.4 wt% of camphor- quinone (Esstech) and 0.8 wt% of N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine…silanated strontium glass fillers (Esstech), 0.7 and 2 mm in size, to a constant…

This version was published on January 1, 2010.

Link:  http://jba.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/24/5/453


Share This Post!

Camphorquinone Decomposition Rates Vary Among UDMA and BisGMA/TEGDMA Formulations

Thursday, March 18th, 2010
Share This Post!

Photobleaching of camphorquinone during polymerization of dimethacrylate-based resins

Silvana Asmusen, Gustavo Arenas, Wayne D. Cook, Claudia Vallo

Dental Materials, December 2009 (Vol. 25, Issue 12, Pages 1603-1611)

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the photobleaching rate of CQ in different dental resins. Methods: The photodecomposition rate of CQ/amine system in bis-GMA/TEGDMA, bis-EMA and UDMA polymerizing monomers was evaluated at different light intensities. The photobleaching of the CQ was studied by monitoring the decrease in light absorption as a function of continuous irradiation time. The absorption changes were assessed by recording the transmitted light that passed through samples of monomers containing CQ/amine. Results: Complete photobleaching of CQ was observed in all the monomer tested and the rate constant for the photobleaching was proportional to the radiation intensity. Hydrogen abstraction from amines by the excited CQ state via electron transfer and direct hydrogen abstraction from monomer structures were involved in the CQ photoreduction. CQ was photobleached in the absence of coinitiator in a dimethacrylate monomer containing a carbamate functional group (UDMA). This behavior was attributed to the presence of labile hydrogen atoms in the UDMA monomer. The CQ photobleaching rate constant in UDMA containing CQ/amine was similar to that in UDMA in the absence of amine. Moreover, the efficiency of CQ to photoinitiate the polymerization of UDMA in the absence of amine demonstrated that the radicals derived from the UDMA monomer via hydrogen abstraction are highly reactive toward double bonds.

Significance: CQ photoinitiates the polymerization of the UDMA monomer in the absence of amine and the efficiency of this process is comparable to that of traditional bis-GMA and bis-EMA monomers activated with CQ/amine.

Link:  http://www.demajournal.com/article/S0109-5641(09)00285-1/abstract


Share This Post!

Refractive Index of Methacrylate Monomers & Polymers

Thursday, March 11th, 2010
Share This Post!

TECHNICAL BULLETIN:  Refractive Index of Monomers and Their Respective Polymers

The refractive index (RI) of photopolymers is an essential property for many applications.  For optical and coating applications, the RI can be related to the resultant gloss or clarity upon cure.  Within the dental industry, the refractive index of the organic polymer matrix, must match that of the inorganic filler and substrate in order to avoid obvious “lines” where the product is applied.

Various factors affect refractive index values.  The presence of conjugated ring structures contributes to increasing RI.  In general, larger molecular weight monomers have a tendency to possess a higher RI in comparison to their lower molecular weight counterparts.  Similar to this trend, high molecular weight functional groups like methacrylates have higher RI than their acrylate counterparts. Higher atomic weight atoms also seem to be predisposed to having higher RI.

Recognizing the importance of refractive index to our customers, Esstech has assembled RI data for a portion of our existing monomer products as well as their corresponding homopolymers.

 Esstech Refractive Index Chart

Maintaining its position as an industry innovator, Esstech has also created functional, high refractive index materials.  Contact us to learn more about these novel materials and how Esstech can make a material to match your application.

 (P) 800-245-3800 / (P) 610-521-3800 / techsupport@esstechinc.com / www.esstechinc.com


Share This Post!

Esstech Inc. – Creating custom products & formulations to meet your unique needs!