Posts Tagged ‘bisGMA’

Bisphenol A Content

Wednesday, June 2nd, 2010
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BisGMA, bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate is a common resin that carries trace amounts of BPA.  Bisphenol A (BPA) carries with it various risks recognized by the National Toxicology Program.

It is possible that high doses of bisphenol A during pregnancy and/or lactation can reduce survival, birth weight, and growth of offspring early in life.  BPA has also been shown to have estrogenic effects. *

According to internal analysis, Esstech’s bisGMA, Product Code X-950-0000, has one of the lowest BPA concentrations in the industry.

BPA Chart

EASE OF FORMULATION

To simplify formulations, X-950-0000 is available in pre-mixed solutions with Triethyleneglycol Dimethacrylate (TEGDMA).

BPA-FREE ALTERNATIVES

Esstech is constantly striving to provide customers with the most up-to-date and novel materials.  The f0llowing are resin “alternatives” that do not contain BPA.

X-850-0000, Urethane Dimethacrylate

  • Cures to create a hard glassy surface
  • Low color values
  • Excellent compatibility with light cure systems

X-726-0000, Extended UDMA

  • Increased flexibility
  • Enhanced fracture toughness

Esstech is constantly striving to provide customers with the most up-to-date and novel materials.  Contact us if you would like to discuss a certain material or to hear what we have in development.

* NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Bisphenol A.  National Toxicology Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  NIH Publication No. 08-5994, September 2008.


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BisGMA:TEGDMA:UDMA Composites Present Optimal Conversion and Mechanical Properties.

Friday, May 21st, 2010
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Bis-GMA  co-polymerizations: Influence on conversion, flexural properties, fracture toughness and susceptibility to ethanol degradation of experimental composites

Carmem S. Pfeifer, Laura R. Silva, Yoshio Kawano, Roberto R. Braga

Dental Materials Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 1136-1141 (September 2009)

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of monomer content on fracture toughness (KIc) before and after ethanol solution storage, flexural properties and degree of conversion (DC) of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) co-polymers.

Methods

Five formulations were tested, containing Bis-GMA (B) combined with TEGDMA (T), UDMA (U) or Bis-EMA (E), as follows (in mol%): 30B:70T; 30B:35T:35U; 30B:70U; 30B:35T:35E; 30B:70E. Bimodal filler was introduced at 80wt%. Single-edge notched beams for fracture toughness (FT, 25mm×5mm×2.5mm, a/w=0.5, n=20) and 10mm×2mm×1mm beams for flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM) determination (10mm×2mm×1mm, n=10) were built and then stored in distilled water for 24h at 37°C. All FS/FM beams and half of the FT specimens were immediately submitted to three-point bending test. The remaining FT specimens were stored in a 75%ethanol/25%water (v/v) solution for 3 months prior to testing. DC was determined with FT-Raman spectroscopy in fragments of both FT and FS/FM specimens at 24h. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA/Tukey test (α=5%).

Results

The 30B:70T composite presented the highest KIc value (in MPam1/2) at 24h (1.3±0.4), statistically similar to 30B:35T:35U and 30B:70U, while 30B:70E presented the lowest value (0.5±0.1). After ethanol storage, reductions in KIc ranged from 33 to 72%. The 30B:70E material presented the lowest reduction in FT and 30B:70U, the highest. DC was similar among groups (69–73%), except for 30B:70U (52±4%, p<0.001). 30B:70U and 30B:35T:35U presented the highest FS (125±21 and 122±14MPa, respectively), statistically different from 30B:70T or 30B:70E (92±20 and 94±16MPa, respectively). Composites containing UDMA or Bis-EMA associated with Bis-GMA presented similar FM, statistically lower than 30B:35T:35U.

Significance

Composites formulated with Bis-GMA:TEGDMA:UDMA presented the best compromise between conversion and mechanical properties.

This version was accepted March 23, 2009.

Link, http://www.demajournal.com/article/S0109-5641%2809%2900162-6/abstract


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Optimizing Degree of Conversion, Strength, Young’s Modulus and Hardness of Bis-EMA, Bis-GMA and TEGDMA Formulations

Tuesday, April 20th, 2010
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Preparation and Evaluation of Dental Resin Luting Agents with Increasing Content of Bisphenol-A Ethoxylated Dimethacrylate

Rafael R. Moraes, Mário A.C. Sinhoreti, Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho, Fabrício A. Ogliari, Evandro Piva, and Cesar L. Petzhold

Journal of Biomaterials Applications, Jan 2010; vol. 24: pp. 453 – 473.

Abstract: Resin luting agents in which bisphenol-A glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and/or triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) are replaced with increasing amounts of bisphenol-A ethoxylated dimethacrylate are prepared. Degree of conversion (DC), diametral tensile strength (DTS), Young’s modulus (YM), Knoop hardness (KHN), film thickness (FT), water sorption (Wsp ), and solubility are evaluated. Regression analyses investigate the substitution of each monomer. The most appreciable differences are detected when TEGDMA is replaced: decreased DC, DTS, and Wsp, and increased YM, KHN, and FT. For substitution of Bis-GMA, the only significant differences are reduced Wsp and increased YM. An ideal formulation of resin cement would make use of the three monomers.

…Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, and/or Bis-EMA (Esstech Inc., Essington, PA, USA) were tested…photo-curable, 0.4 wt% of camphor- quinone (Esstech) and 0.8 wt% of N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine…silanated strontium glass fillers (Esstech), 0.7 and 2 mm in size, to a constant…

This version was published on January 1, 2010.

Link:  http://jba.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/24/5/453


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Camphorquinone Decomposition Rates Vary Among UDMA and BisGMA/TEGDMA Formulations

Thursday, March 18th, 2010
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Photobleaching of camphorquinone during polymerization of dimethacrylate-based resins

Silvana Asmusen, Gustavo Arenas, Wayne D. Cook, Claudia Vallo

Dental Materials, December 2009 (Vol. 25, Issue 12, Pages 1603-1611)

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the photobleaching rate of CQ in different dental resins. Methods: The photodecomposition rate of CQ/amine system in bis-GMA/TEGDMA, bis-EMA and UDMA polymerizing monomers was evaluated at different light intensities. The photobleaching of the CQ was studied by monitoring the decrease in light absorption as a function of continuous irradiation time. The absorption changes were assessed by recording the transmitted light that passed through samples of monomers containing CQ/amine. Results: Complete photobleaching of CQ was observed in all the monomer tested and the rate constant for the photobleaching was proportional to the radiation intensity. Hydrogen abstraction from amines by the excited CQ state via electron transfer and direct hydrogen abstraction from monomer structures were involved in the CQ photoreduction. CQ was photobleached in the absence of coinitiator in a dimethacrylate monomer containing a carbamate functional group (UDMA). This behavior was attributed to the presence of labile hydrogen atoms in the UDMA monomer. The CQ photobleaching rate constant in UDMA containing CQ/amine was similar to that in UDMA in the absence of amine. Moreover, the efficiency of CQ to photoinitiate the polymerization of UDMA in the absence of amine demonstrated that the radicals derived from the UDMA monomer via hydrogen abstraction are highly reactive toward double bonds.

Significance: CQ photoinitiates the polymerization of the UDMA monomer in the absence of amine and the efficiency of this process is comparable to that of traditional bis-GMA and bis-EMA monomers activated with CQ/amine.

Link:  http://www.demajournal.com/article/S0109-5641(09)00285-1/abstract


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Refractive Index of Methacrylate Monomers & Polymers

Thursday, March 11th, 2010
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TECHNICAL BULLETIN:  Refractive Index of Monomers and Their Respective Polymers

The refractive index (RI) of photopolymers is an essential property for many applications.  For optical and coating applications, the RI can be related to the resultant gloss or clarity upon cure.  Within the dental industry, the refractive index of the organic polymer matrix, must match that of the inorganic filler and substrate in order to avoid obvious “lines” where the product is applied.

Various factors affect refractive index values.  The presence of conjugated ring structures contributes to increasing RI.  In general, larger molecular weight monomers have a tendency to possess a higher RI in comparison to their lower molecular weight counterparts.  Similar to this trend, high molecular weight functional groups like methacrylates have higher RI than their acrylate counterparts. Higher atomic weight atoms also seem to be predisposed to having higher RI.

Recognizing the importance of refractive index to our customers, Esstech has assembled RI data for a portion of our existing monomer products as well as their corresponding homopolymers.

 Esstech Refractive Index Chart

Maintaining its position as an industry innovator, Esstech has also created functional, high refractive index materials.  Contact us to learn more about these novel materials and how Esstech can make a material to match your application.

 (P) 800-245-3800 / (P) 610-521-3800 / techsupport@esstechinc.com / www.esstechinc.com


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